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  • 設計癖 - 關注設計癖 發現好設計

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    帶你閱讀《設計心理學》——人的日常行為

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    我們早日常生活中會遇到形形色色的產品,如何使用這些不斷涌現的新產品?這個問題不應該是對用戶智商的考驗,而是對設計師設計能力的考驗。要想解決好這個問題,需要了解清楚人究竟是如何使用產品的,用戶的認知行為是什么。

    一般來說人們使用產品的行為分為兩種,一是執行動作,二是對動作進行評估。首先,用戶會產生一個目標,然后制定計劃去完成,并評估完成的結果。根據這樣的過程,唐納德將人的行為分為了7個步驟。

    7個步驟之間,用戶需要面臨兩個鴻溝——執行鴻溝與評估鴻溝。即,用戶需要弄清產品如何操作,以及弄清楚操作的結果。設計師的價值也就在消除這兩個鴻溝中體現。

    ?

    我們在了解了人們行為的7個階段之后,會為設計師提供新產品研發的指導。用戶從一開始就有明顯的心里鴻溝,不論是執行的鴻溝還是評估的,每一條都是改進產品的機會。?

    在了解了人的行為的7各階段之后,我們還要明白行為之上的人的思想方面的內容,即人的認知與情感。唐納德·諾曼根據多年的研究,將人的情感分為三個層次:本能、行為與反思。

    ?

    ?本能層次

    本能層次是最基本的處理層次,被稱為「蜥蜴腦」。所有人的本能層次差異不大,它與身體的肌肉——運動系統緊密相連。本能的反應是迅速的,而且完全是潛意識的。通俗的說,就是看見美好的事物,人們會自然而然地愉悅;聽到刺耳的聲音,會自然而然地產生厭惡地心理,這些反應地產生是本能的,不需要任何思考的。偉大設計師用他們的美學素養激發用戶的這些本能反應。?

    行為層次

    人的行為層次地思維也并不需要復雜地思考,有時也是潛意識地。比如,拿起一杯水、舉手等等這些動作行為,你不需要思考,大腦只需要發出命令。?

    設計師的價值是讓每一個行動都與一個期望相關聯。

    ?反思層次

    這一個層次是發展深層理解的地方,也是產生推理和有意識決策的地方。反思通常是使用產品之后,評估發生的狀況、行為和結果,并評判過失和責任。

    ?

    看到這里,你會明白,在設計之中,最重要的不是美觀與吸引力,而是核心信息的有效傳達。所以不管是產品的最直觀的表達,還是最后結果的反饋,都應該以用戶最容易理解的方式來進行闡釋。

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