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  • 設計癖 - 關注設計癖 發現好設計

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    帶你閱讀《設計心理學》——示能、意符和映射到底是指什么?

    網站導航

    網站導航

    《設計心理學》作為設計學科的入門級書籍,幾乎成為了每一位設計師必備的設計入門級書籍。作者唐納德·諾曼在書中通過案例描寫,將讀者引導為優秀的觀察者,了解優秀設計與糟糕設計之間的區別,不僅適用于設計師培養良好的思維能力,還適用于普通大眾,讓他們掌控生活中的物品的權力,即:知道如何選擇有用、合理的產品,以及如何修復那些不好用、不合理的產品。

    在正式進入閱讀之前,我們需要了解一些專業詞匯,以方便我們后面的閱讀方便。

    示能

    示能指一個物理現象與人之間的關系。也就是物品的特性與決定物品預設用途的主體之間的關系。簡單概述為,有形的物品如何傳達出人們與它們互動的重要信息。是不是覺得很繞。別急,其實它特別容易理解,用最直白的話說,就是事物通過自己的外在形態,向人們展示自己具有的功能。比如,你看到一張桌子,你就知道它可以放東西;看到一只鉛筆,就知道它可以寫字;看到一頂帽子,就知道它可以佩戴······

    ?

    意符

    在以前產品都比較簡單,比如勺子、鏡子等等,功能都一目了然,但是隨著科技的發展,產品也越來越復雜,很多時候單純靠外觀根本分辨不出來這些東西到底具備什么功能,如何使用,這個時候,就需要設計師登場。要借助設計的智慧將產品本身具有的功能通過一些方式展現的更加明顯,讓用戶一眼就可以知道,它能用來做什么,怎么用!

    ?

    設計師借助的這種方式便是意符,也就是符號。它的設計就是用來指示用戶,產品或者產品的某個部分可以用來做什么的。

    比如最常見的就是在開關上加上一個U形的開關符號。當然意符的設計有高下之分,您可以通過小編的另一篇文章「沒有設計哲思,何談設計的深度?」了解好的意符設計是什么樣子的。

    ?

    映射

    映射是什么?這難道不是數學概念?它來源于數學概念,但是在設計之中,賦予了它新的意義。它指的就是在使用產品的時候,人們對產品進行操作、控制等行為與其進行這些行為之后產生的結果之間的關系,這種關系叫做映射。

    比如,你想使用遙控器轉換電視節目,按下向下的按鈕,電視頻道進入下一個節目,這個向下的按鈕就是電視頻道跳轉下一個的映射。

    再比如,燃氣灶的開關應當對應灶的位置,這樣可以直觀的進行操作。

    ?

    一般說來,一款產品的操作的映射越自然,產品的學習成本越低。

    最后,希望這篇文章可以幫助你更深的理解設計!

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